Carbon Capture & Storage CCS
Carbon capture, also known as carbon capture and storage (CCS), is a process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and even the atmosphere, and then storing them in a way that prevents their release into the atmosphere. This is done in order to mitigate climate change by reducing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
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There are several different methods for capturing carbon, including post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-fuel combustion. Once the carbon is captured, it can be stored in underground geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas fields, saline formations, or deep aquifers.
While carbon capture has the potential to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change, it is still a relatively expensive and complex technology. There are also concerns about the safety and long-term viability of carbon storage, as well as the potential for leakage. Despite these challenges, carbon capture is seen by many experts as an important tool in the fight against climate change.
Transporting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) typically involves compressing the gas into a dense, liquid-like form and then transporting it via pipeline or by truck, ship, or rail to the storage site.Before transportation, the captured CO2 is compressed to high pressure, typically around 100 times the pressure of the Earth's atmosphere. This is necessary in order to make the gas dense enough to be transported economically over long distances.
Pipeline transportation is the most commonly used method for transporting CO2, particularly for large-scale CCS projects. In this method, the compressed CO2 is transported through a network of pipelines, similar to the way natural gas is transported. The pipelines used for CO2 transport are typically made of steel and are designed to withstand the high pressures involved.
In some cases, where pipelines are not feasible, CO2 can be transported by truck, ship, or rail. However, these methods are generally more expensive and less efficient than pipeline transportation.
Once the captured CO2 reaches its destination, it is stored in a secure geological formation, such as an underground saline aquifer or depleted oil and gas reservoir. The CO2 can then be monitored to ensure that it remains securely stored and does not leak back into the atmosphere.
Captured carbon dioxide (CO2) can be stored in several different ways. One of the most common methods is geological storage, which involves injecting the CO2 deep underground into porous rock formations that can securely trap the gas.
Here are some of the most common ways that captured carbon can be stored:
Geological storage: CO2 can be stored in deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers or depleted oil and gas reservoirs. These formations are typically several thousand feet below the surface and can securely trap the CO2 for thousands of years.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR): CO2 can also be used to extract additional oil from depleted oil fields through a process known as enhanced oil recovery. In this process, the CO2 is injected into the oil field, where it mixes with the remaining oil and helps to bring it to the surface.
Mineral carbonation: CO2 can react with naturally occurring minerals, such as magnesium or calcium, to form stable carbonates that can be stored long-term. This process is known as mineral carbonation, and it can occur naturally over long periods of time or be artificially accelerated in a process known as accelerated mineral carbonation.
Direct air capture: In some cases, CO2 can be captured directly from the atmosphere using special technologies, such as direct air capture machines. Once captured, the CO2 can be stored using one of the methods described above.
Regardless of the method used for storage, it is important to carefully monitor the stored CO2 to ensure that it remains securely trapped and does not leak back into the atmosphere. Regular monitoring can help to identify any leaks and ensure that the stored CO2 remains safely stored over the long term. Storage in Scandinavia
Carbon storage in the North Sea (also known as carbon sequestration in the North Sea) includes programs being run by several Northern European countries to capture carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide, CO2), and store it under the North Sea in either old oil and gas workings, or within saline aquifers. Whilst there have been some moves to international cooperation, most of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) programs are governed by the laws of the country that is running them. Because the governments have pledged net zero carbon emissions by 2050, they have to find ways to deal with any remaining CO2 produced, such as by heavy industry. Around 90% of the identified storage geologies for carbon dioxide in Europe are shared between Norway and the United Kingdom; all of the designated sites for storage are located in the North Sea.
The first carbon storage operation to utilize the North Seabed was the Sleipner Field in 1996, which was operated by a Norwegian oil and gas company. However, the storage of carbon was down to the gas product having a high carbon content, so needed to be scrubbed (stripped) of its carbon, which was pumped back down into the gas well.
Ongoing CCS projects
Project Greensand - https://www.projectgreensand.com/en Project Greensand aims to develop and demonstrate that CO2 can be stored underground in the Danish North Sea. This will take place in the INEOS-operated Siri field, located more than 200 kilometers west of the Danish coast. In the short term, the project will aim to store up to 1.5 million tonnes of CO2 per year in 2025. By 2030, Project Greensand aims to store up to 8 million tonnes of CO2 per year.